|TRIVAGO N.V. filed this Form 20-F on 03/06/2018|
(including those that are co-entrepreneurships (Mitunternehmerschaften)) are attributable to the ADS holder only on a pro rata basis at the ratio of the interest share of the ADS holder in the assets of the relevant partnership.
However, the dividends (after deducting business expenses economically related to the dividends) are subject to trade tax in the full amount, unless the requirements of the trade tax participation exemption privilege are fulfilled. In this latter case, the dividends are not subject to trade tax; however, trade tax is levied on amounts considered to be non-deductible business expenses (amounting to 5% of the dividend). Depending on the municipal trade tax multiplier applied by the relevant municipal authority, in most cases trade tax ranges from 7% to approximately 18%.
If the ADSs are held as business assets by a sole proprietor with a tax domicile in Germany, only 60% of the dividends are subject to progressive income tax (plus the solidarity surcharge thereon) at a total tax rate of up to approximately 47.5% (plus church tax, if applicable), under the so-called partial income method (Teileinkünfteverfahren). Only 60% of the business expenses economically related to the dividends are tax-deductible. If the ADSs belong to a domestic permanent establishment in Germany of a business operation of an ADS holder, the dividend income (after deducting business expenses economically related thereto) is fully subject to trade tax, unless the prerequisites of the trade tax participation exemption privilege are fulfilled. In this latter case the net amount of dividends, i.e. after deducting directly related expenses, is exempt from trade tax. As a rule, trade tax can be credited against the ADS holder’s personal income tax, either in full or in part, by means of a lump-sum tax credit method, depending on the level of the municipal trade tax multiplier and certain individual tax-relevant circumstances of the taxpayer.
If the ADS holder is a genuine business partnership or a deemed business partnership (co-entrepreneurship) with a permanent establishment in Germany, the income tax or corporate income tax is not levied at the level of the partnership but at the level of the respective partner. The taxation of every partner depends on whether the partner is a corporation or an individual. If the partner is a corporation, the dividends contained in the profit share of the partner will be taxed in accordance with the rules applicable for corporations (see “Corporations” above). If the partner is an individual, the taxation follows the rules described for sole proprietors, (see “Sole proprietors” above). Upon application and subject to further conditions, an individual as a partner can have his personal income tax rate reduced for earnings retained at the level of the partnership.
In addition, the dividends are subject to trade tax in the full amount at the partnership level if the ADSs are attributed to a German permanent establishment of the partnership, unless the requirements of the trade tax participation exemption privilege are fulfilled. If a partner of the partnership is an individual, the portion of the trade tax paid by the partnership pertaining to his profit share will be credited, either in full or in part, against his personal income tax by means of a lump-sum method, depending on the level of the municipal trade tax multiplier and certain individual tax-relevant circumstances of the taxpayer. Due to a lack of case law and administrative guidance, it is currently unclear how the rules for the taxation of dividends from Portfolio Participations (see “Corporations” above) might impact the trade tax treatment at the level of the partnership. ADS holders are strongly recommended to consult their tax advisors. Under a literal reading of the law, if the partnership qualifies for the trade tax exemption privilege at the beginning of the relevant assessment period, the dividends should not be subject to trade tax. However, in this case, trade tax should be levied on 5% of the dividends to the extent they are attributable to the profit share of such corporate partners to whom at least 10% of the underlying shares in the company are attributable on a look-through basis, since such portion of the dividends should be deemed to be non-deductible business expenses. The remaining portion of the dividend income attributable to other than such specific corporate partners (which includes individual partners and should, under a literal reading of the law, also include corporate partners to whom, on a look-through basis, only Portfolio Participations are attributable) should (after the deduction of business expenses economically related thereto) not be subject to trade tax.