|TRIVAGO N.V. filed this Form 20-F on 03/06/2018|
As discussed in Note 1, as a result of the corporate reorganization, trivago N.V. consolidates trivago GmbH and trivago GmbH is considered to be the predecessor to trivago N.V. for accounting and reporting purposes. As a result of the merger of trivago GmbH with and into trivago N.V. during 2017, as of December 31, 2017 there no longer remains a minority interest related to trivago GmbH classified as noncontrolling interest as a component of stockholders’ equity in our consolidated financial statements.
As of December 31, 2017 all subsidiaries of the Company are wholly-owned. In 2016 and throughout 2017 until the deconsolidation of myhotelshop, noncontrolling interests with shares redeemable at the option of the minority holders in myhotelshop and base7 have been included in redeemable noncontrolling interests. We classify the redeemable noncontrolling interest as a mezzanine equity below non-current liabilities in our consolidated financial statements. See Note 12 - Redeemable noncontrolling interests for further discussion.
We use estimates and assumptions in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). Our estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of our consolidated financial statements. These estimates and assumptions also affect the reported amount of net income or loss during any period. Our actual financial results could differ significantly from these estimates. The significant estimates underlying our consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition, intangible assets and goodwill, redeemable noncontrolling interest, acquisition purchase price allocations, and share-based compensation.
We recognize revenue from services rendered when it is earned and realizable based on the following criteria: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, services have been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured.
Revenue is generated each time a visitor to one of our websites or apps clicks on a hotel room offer in our search results and is referred to one of our advertisers. Advertisers pay on a per referral basis, with the aforementioned visitor click-through being considered a single referral. Given the nature of the industry, it is not unusual for referrals to be generated from automated scripts designed to browse and collect data on our websites. However, review processes are in place to identify anomalies to ensure revenue recognition is appropriate. Pricing is determined through a competitive bidding process whereby advertisers bid on their placement priority for a specific room offer within each room listing. Bids can be placed as often as daily, and changes in bids are applied on a prospective basis on the following day. Additionally, a portion of our revenue is generated through subscription-based services earned through trivago Hotel Manager Pro applications. This revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription period and deferred revenue is recorded on the balance sheet for amounts invoiced in advance of revenue recognition.
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue consists of expenses that are directly or closely correlated to revenue generation, including data center costs, salaries and share-based compensation for our data center operations staff and our customer service team who are directly involved in revenue generation. For the three years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 cost of revenue excludes €19.9 million, €3.8 million and €0.1 million, respectively, of amortization expense of acquired technology. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 cost of revenue excludes €0.5 million, €1.4 million and €1.7 million, respectively, of amortization expense related to internal use software and website development.