|TRIVAGO N.V. filed this Form 20-F on 03/06/2018|
statements. Interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions are classified in the financial statements as a component of income tax expense.
Presentation of taxes in the statements of operations
We present taxes that we collect from advertisers and remit to government authorities on a net basis in our consolidated statements of operations.
Foreign currency translation and transaction gains and losses
The consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in euros, the reporting currency. Certain of our operations outside of the Eurozone use the local currency as their functional currency. We translate revenue and expense at average exchange rates during the period and assets and liabilities at the exchange rates as of the consolidated balance sheet dates and include such foreign currency translation gains and losses as a component of other comprehensive income. Due to the nature of our operations and our corporate structure, we also have subsidiaries that have significant transactions in foreign currencies other than their functional currency. We record transaction gains and losses in our consolidated statements of operations related to the recurring remeasurement and settlement of such transactions.
We incur advertising expense consisting of offline costs, including television and radio advertising, as well as online advertising expense to promote our brands. A significant portion of traffic from users is directed to our websites through our participation in display advertising campaigns on search engines, advertising networks, affiliate websites and social networking sites. We consider traffic acquisition costs to be indirect advertising fees. We expense the production costs associated with advertisements in the period in which the advertisement first takes place. We expense the costs of communicating the advertisement (e.g., television airtime) as incurred each time the advertisement is shown. These costs are included in selling and marketing expense in our consolidated statements of operations. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017, our advertising expense was €432.2 million, €623.5 million and €884.7 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2016 and 2017, we had €5.3 million and €12.6 million, respectively, of prepaid marketing expenses included in prepaid expenses and other current assets.
Share-based compensation included in our consolidated financial statements relates to certain outstanding trivago employee options replaced with new trivago employee option awards exercisable into trivago Class A shares, in connection with the controlling-interest acquisition of trivago by Expedia in 2013. During 2017, there were additional options granted in connection with the Omnibus Incentive Plan to employees of trivago.
The fair value of share options accounted for as equity settled transactions is measured at the grant date using the Black–Scholes option pricing model. The valuation model incorporates various assumptions including expected volatility of equity, expected term and risk-free interest rates. As we do not have a trading history relatable to the expected term of our awards, the expected share price volatility for our Class A shares was estimated by taking the average historic price volatility for industry peers based on daily price observations over a period commensurate to the expected term. Prior to the IPO, we previously based our expected term assumptions on the terms and conditions of the employee share option agreements, and scheduled exercise windows. Post IPO, we have used the simplified method in determining the term by using the midpoint between the vesting date and the end of the contractual term to estimate the term for all option grants subsequent of the IPO. The simplified method was used as we do not have sufficient relatable historical term data is available. Prior to the IPO, the share price assumption used in the model is based upon a valuation of trivago’s shares as of the grant date utilizing a blended analysis of the present value of future discounted cash flows and a market valuation approach. Post IPO, the share price assumption used in the model is based our publicly traded share price on the date of grant. We amortize the fair value to the extent the awards qualify for equity treatment, over the vesting term on a straight-line basis. The majority of our share options are service-based awards which vest between one and three years and have contractual terms that align with prescribed liquidation windows.