|TRIVAGO N.V. filed this Form 20-F on 03/06/2018|
We have performance-based share options which vest upon achievement of certain company-based performance conditions and service conditions. On the date of grant, we determine the fair value of the performance-based award using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The awards are then assessed to determine the probability of the award vesting. If assessed as probable, we record compensation expense for these awards over the total performance and service period using the accelerated method. At each reporting period, we reassess the probability of achieving the performance targets, which requires judgment, and to the extent actual results or updated estimates differ from our current estimates, the cumulative effect on current and prior periods of those changes will be recorded in the period estimates are revised, or the change in estimate will be applied prospectively depending on whether the change affects the estimate of total compensation cost to be recognized. The ultimate number of shares issued and the related compensation expense recognized will be based on a comparison of the final performance metrics to the specified targets.
We classify certain employee option awards as liabilities when we deem it not probable that the employees holding the awards will bear the risk and rewards of stock ownership for a reasonable period of time. We remeasure these instruments at fair value at the end of each reporting period using a Black-Scholes option pricing model which relies upon an estimate of the fair value of trivago’s shares as of the reporting date which is determined using a blended approach as discussed above. Upon settlement of these awards, our total share-based compensation expense recorded from grant date to settlement date will equal the settlement amount.
We recognize the effect of forfeitures in the period that the award was forfeited.
Fair value recognition, measurement and disclosure
The carrying amounts of cash and restricted cash reported on our consolidated balance sheets approximate fair value as we maintain them with various high-quality financial institutions. The accounts receivable are short-term in nature and their carrying value generally approximates fair value.
We disclose the fair value of our financial instruments based on the fair value hierarchy using the following three categories:
Level 1 - Valuations based on quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets.
Level 2 - Valuations based on observable inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1, such as quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3 - Valuations based on unobservable inputs reflecting the Company’s own assumptions, consistent with reasonably available assumptions made by other market participants. These valuations require significant judgment.
Certain risks and concentration of credit risk
Our business is subject to certain risks and concentrations including dependence on relationships with advertisers, dependence on third-party technology providers, and exposure to risks associated with online commerce security. Our concentration of credit risk relates to depositors holding the Company's cash and customers with significant accounts receivable balances.
Our customer base includes primarily online travel agencies and hoteliers. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and maintain allowances for potential credit losses. We generally do not require collateral or other security from our customers. Expedia, our controlling shareholder, and its affiliates represent 39%, 36% and 36%, respectively, of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017, and 31% and 47%, respectively, of total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2016 and 2017. Booking Holdings and its affiliates represent 27%, 43% and 44%, respectively, of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 and 48% and 28%, respectively, of total accounts receivable as of December 31, 2016 and 2017.