|TRIVAGO N.V. filed this Form 20-F on 03/06/2018|
Revenue is generated each time a visitor to one of our websites or apps clicks on a hotel room offer in our search results and is referred to one of our advertisers. Advertisers pay on a per referral basis, with the aforementioned visitor click-through being considered a single referral. Given the nature of the industry, it is not unusual for referrals to be generated from automated scripts designed to browse and collect data on our websites. However, review processes are in place to identify anomalies to ensure revenue recognition is appropriate. Pricing is determined through a competitive bidding process whereby advertisers bid on their placement priority for a specific room offer within each room listing. Bids can be placed as often as daily, and changes in bids are applied on a prospective basis on the following day. Additionally, a portion of our revenue is generated through subscription-based services earned through trivago Hotel Manager Pro applications. This revenue is recognized ratably over the subscription period and deferred revenue is recorded on the balance sheet for amounts invoiced in advance of revenue recognition.
We lease office space in several countries under non-cancelable lease agreements. We generally lease our office facilities under operating lease agreements. We recognize rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease period. Any lease incentives are recognized as reductions of rental expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The lease term begins on the date we become legally obligated for the rent payments or when we take possession of the office space, whichever is earlier.
We establish assets and liabilities for the estimated construction costs incurred under lease arrangements where we are considered the owner for accounting purposes only, or build-to-suit leases, to the extent that we are involved in the construction of structural improvements or take construction risk prior to commencement of a lease.
In July 2015, we entered into a lease for new corporate headquarters with 26,107 square meters of office space. Pursuant to the lease, the Landlord will build this office building in Düsseldorf, Germany. As a result of our involvement in the construction project and our responsibility for paying a portion of the costs of normal finish work and structural elements of the premises, the Company was deemed for accounting purposes to be the owner of the premises during the construction period pursuant to build-to-suit lease accounting guidance under ASC 840. Therefore, the Company recorded project construction costs during the construction period incurred by the landlord as a construction-in-progress asset and a related construction financing obligation on our consolidated balance sheets. The amounts that the Company has paid or incurred for normal tenant improvements and structural improvements had also been recorded as part of the construction-in-progress asset.
We have a lease that includes both building and land. We have bifurcated our lease payments pursuant to the premises into: a portion that is allocated to the building (a reduction to the financing obligation); and a portion that is allocated to the land on which the building was constructed. The portion of the lease obligations allocated to the land is treated as an operating lease that commenced in July 2015. For the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, we have recorded €1.7 million and €1.7 million respectively, of land rent expense in connection with this lease.
Recoverability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets
Goodwill is assigned to our three reporting units, which correspond to our three operating segments, on the basis of their relative fair values as of the date of change in reporting units. We assess goodwill and indefinite-lived assets, neither of which are amortized, for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of the year, or more frequently, if events and circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred. In the evaluation of goodwill for impairment, we typically first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of each reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, followed by performing a quantitative assessment by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit to the carrying value, if necessary. Effective October 1, 2017, we prospectively adopted accounting guidance that simplified our goodwill impairment testing by eliminating the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill (formerly "Step 2") in the event an impairment is identified. Instead, an impairment charge is recorded based on the excess of the reporting unit's carrying amount over its fair value.