|TRIVAGO N.V. filed this Form F-3 on 04/05/2018|
Enforcement of civil liabilities
We are a public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap) incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands, and we are a tax resident of Germany with our place of effective management in Germany. The members of our management board and a majority of our supervisory board members are non-residents of the United States. The majority of our assets and the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon such persons or to enforce against them or us in U.S. courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States.
The United States and the Netherlands currently do not have a treaty providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, other than arbitration awards, in civil and commercial matters. Consequently, a final judgment for payment given by a court in the United States, whether or not predicated solely upon U.S. securities laws, would not automatically be recognized or enforceable in the Netherlands. In order to obtain a judgment which is enforceable in the Netherlands, the party in whose favor a final and conclusive judgment of the U.S. court has been rendered will be required to file its claim with a court of competent jurisdiction in the Netherlands.
Under current practice, the courts of the Netherlands may be expected to render a judgment in accordance with the judgment of the relevant foreign court, provided that such judgment (i) is a final judgment and has been rendered by a court which has established its jurisdiction vis-à-vis the relevant Dutch Companies or Dutch Company, as the case may be, on the basis of internationally accepted grounds of jurisdiction, (ii) has not been rendered in violation of elementary principles of fair trial, (iii) is not contrary to the public policy of the Netherlands, and (iv) is not incompatible with (a) a prior judgment of a Netherlands court rendered in a dispute between the same parties, or (b) a prior judgment of a foreign court rendered in a dispute between the same parties, concerning the same subject matter and based on the same cause of action, provided that such prior judgment is capable of being recognized in the Netherlands.
Dutch courts may deny the recognition and enforcement of punitive damages or other awards. Moreover, a Dutch court may reduce the amount of damages granted by a U.S. court and recognize damages only to the extent that they are necessary to compensate actual losses or damages. Enforcement and recognition of judgments of U.S. courts in the Netherlands are solely governed by the provisions of the Dutch Civil Procedure Code. If no leave to enforce is granted, claimants must litigate the claim again before a Dutch competent court.
In addition, awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere are generally not enforceable in Germany. Actions brought in a German court against us or the members of our management board and supervisory board, our executive officers and the experts named herein to enforce liabilities based on U.S. federal securities laws may be subject to certain restrictions. In particular, German courts generally do not award punitive damages. Litigation in Germany is also subject to rules of procedure that differ from the U.S. rules, including with respect to the taking and admissibility of evidence, the conduct of the proceedings and the allocation of costs. Proceedings in Germany would generally have to be conducted in the German language, and all documents submitted to the court would, in principle, have to be translated into German. For these reasons, it may be difficult for a U.S. investor to bring an original action in a German court predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us, the members of our management board, supervisory board and executive officers and the experts named in this prospectus. In addition, even if a judgment against our company, the non-U.S. members of our management board, supervisory board, executive officers or the experts named in this prospectus based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws is obtained, a U.S. investor may not be able to enforce it in U.S. or German courts.